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Picture if you will, the year 1513. You stand on a dune somewhere on the beach near what is known now as Turtle Mound. A square-rigged sailing ship is passing offshore with a scruffy bunch of Spanish-speaking sailors peering back at you. They are using the mound as a landmark in this, the New World, and looking for a safe harbor.

But before the Spanish even thought of a New World and a search for the Fountain of Youth, local nomadic inhabitants were living their lives on the banks of the Mosquito Lagoon, raising their families, hunting local game, eating the bountiful shellfish from the river (lagoon), and creating a mountain with shells.

Ponce deLeon used this mound to guide his ship through the Mucoso (Mosquito) Inlet, searching for a harbor where he could replenish his water and firewood. We all know he was interested in finding the Fountain of Youth, but he was too early. We found it at Bethune Beach 450 years later.


Turtle Mound dates to prehistoric times. Surrugue Indians, members of the Timucuan tribe, which inhabited northern Florida, were responsible for shell middens such as this. More than 20 of these mounds were created throughout the New Smyrna area. Most have been destroyed and used for road material. About half of Turtle Mound’s original height of 75 feet was similarly destroyed before the Florida Historical Society stepped in and purchased it for $8,000. The State of Florida later declared it an historical site. It is a “must-see” for all residents and visitors, offering a panoramic view of our barrier islands as it lies between the lagoon and the ocean. Turtle Mound can be seen seven miles out at sea and has been used as a navigation aid from the days of Ponce deLeon.

Following the arrival of Ponce deLeon in 1513, many of these Timucuans were killed, captured, or died of diseases brought by the Europeans. When England gained control of the area in the 1770’s, remaining Timucuans apparently fled to Cuba with the Spanish.

The first settlement of the area by Europeans resulted from the bold vision of Dr. Andrew Turnbull, a wealthy Scottish physician residing in London. Dr. Turnbull and two partners secured royal land grants in 1767. These grants covered over 100,000 acres and became the largest British Colony in America. Dr. Turnbull was married to the daughter of a wealthy Smyrna (Turkey) merchant and named his colony New Smyrna in honor of her birthplace. To work the land, Dr. Turnbull believed that Mediterranean people were well suited to labor in our hot climate. Therefore, he sailed to Greece, Corsica, and Minorca to recruit settlers for New Smyrna and found more people willing to come to the New World than he had expected.

From the beginning the settlers did not fare well due to language differences, shortages of supplies, illness resulting, in part, from the heavy mosquito population, mistreatment, etc. This caused financial losses, rebellion, and political upheaval. The colony was dissolved after 10 years with many of the surviving colonists going north to St. Augustine. (As an interesting “aside”, there is some speculation that New Smyrna was actually the original site of St. Augustine.) Following the failure of Dr. Turnbull’s colony, development of the area was fairly slow. It wasn’t until the 1880’s that New Smyrna was finally incorporated as a town.

The beach side area of New Smyrna was founded in 1880’s. The area, including North Beach south to 2nd Avenue and east to Hill Street was incorporated as Coronado Beach in 1925. After 20 years, New Smyrna was finally successful in its attempts to annex Coronado Beach, and the two towns became New Smyrna Beach in 1946.

After the Civil War, Americans were on the move, and many headed to the Florida frontier. In 1877, property was purchased for the creation of the town of Eldora. Soil was rich in this area and citrus growers raised tangerines, oranges, lemons, and grapefruit.

Olives, indigo, figs, and guava were also grown. Eldora was located along the original route of the Intracoastal Waterway, providing excellent transportation for the shipment of these products, as well as an overnight stopping point for the riverboats. However, the community of Eldora was fairly short-lived. Several consecutive winters of freezing temperatures damaged crops substantially. The arrival of the railroad in New Smyrna Beach in 1887 changed the method of transporting goods, forever ending dependence upon the waterway. Although, some people had built winter vacation homes there, Eldora gradually ceased to exist. One vacation home built in the early 1900’s does continue to stand today – “The Eldora State House”. It has been renovated due to efforts by the “Friends of Canaveral” and serves as a museum. The Canaveral National Seashore was created in 1975 and provides the last 24 mile stretch of completely natural shoreline remaining on the Florida coast. In addition to the Turtle Mound and Eldora sites on the lagoon, there are 5 parking lots, which provide public access to the beach. Doris Leeper, a famous artist and resident of New Smyrna Beach, was instrumental in the creation of the Canaveral National Seashore. She died in 2001. One of the best estuaries in the world, the Mosquito Lagoon in the National Seashore, has many natural inhabitants. The endangered manatees use the waters to bear and feed their young. Wood storks, brown pelicans and bald eagles nest here each year, while peregrine falcons use the park as a waystation on their annual migrations. From December through March endangered 40-foot long right whales appear beyond the breaking surf, birthing their calves before returning north. Dolphins can be observed swimming and feeding both in the lagoon and in the ocean.

The Canaveral National Seashore offers many opportunities for hiking, camping, fishing, canoeing, boating, and picnicking, as well as many interesting educational programs presented by the park rangers. Information may be obtained at the Visitors’ Center in the park. There is an admission fee. Boaters may use the first launch at no charge.

Between the New Smyrna Beach City limits and Canaveral National Seashore are the unincorporated communities of Silver Sands and Bethune Beach. Bethune Beach came into existence through the efforts of Mary McLeod Bethune, founder of Bethune-Cookman College. Mrs. Bethune with the help of other Floridians, including George Engram and her friend Eleanor Roosevelt, established the Bethune Corporation. In 1939, the corporation purchased the 189 acres of land between the Ocean and the River from D. F. Ferqua, an architect and contractor, for approximately $150,000. The land was then subdivided into 25 x 50 foot lots and sold. By the mid 70’s, Bethune Beach began experiencing a land boom, which coincided with the development of Orlando. Today, Bethune Beach is a mix of full-time residents, vacation homes and rental properties.


Headlines from local newspapers

Date Source Topic Headline First Paragraph
News Journal Erosion
Beach Erosion Woes To Be Discussed At Two Meetings
Problems of beach erosion south of the city limits will be discussed by the Bethune Beach Property Owners Assn. tonight and by County Council Thursday.
1/18/79 News Journal Erosion No Immediate Answers To Erosion County Councilman Clyde Mann told Bethune Beach property owners Wednesday night they shouldn't expect any immediate solution to their beach erosion problem out of today's County Council meeting.
1/19/79 News Journal Erosion Beach Residents Get Some Aid From Council Owners of beachfront property that has experienced severe erosion in the past year got a promise of only limited assistance from the County Council Thursday
1/20/79 Little Sentinel Erosion Opinions vary on causes, who pays for beach erosion Experts can't say what is causing severe beach and dune erosion which is endangering several oceanfront homes at Bethune Beach, south of here. And just as perplexed is the Volusia County Council, which can't say who should pay to stop the erosion.
2/13/79 Little Sentinel Revetment Revetment Qualifies For Federal Money A revetment to curb beach erosion here would be project eligible for a federally backed loan as long as affected residents form a special assessment district, an official with Farmer's Home Administration said Monday
2/28/79 Observer Erosion Bethune erosion set as Thursday council topic Volusia County Councilmen have set 3  PM Thursday as a firm time to discuss whether county government will become financially or administratively involved in measures to save Bethune Beach from further erosion
4/6/79 News Journal Erosion Seminar's Focus: Saving Beaches From seawalls made of caskets and Christmas trees to sophisticated breakwaters and beach nourishment programs, participants at a two day seminar here are learning right and not so right methods of beach preservation and restoration
4/6/79 News Journal Erosion County OK's Erosion Study A complete engineering study of the erosion problem here, which the Army Corps of Engineers already has started, was given the blessings of the County Council Thursday
10/17/79 Observer Erosion Army Corps: Bethune can't get federal money No federal funds can be used on a project to help stem erosion that continues to threaten homes and county land in the Bethune Beach area south of New Smyrna Beach, the US Army Corps of Engineers has concluded.
10/20/79 News Journal Erosion Bethune Beach Disagrees With Corp's Report The long awaited Army Corp's of Engineers report on erosion problems along Bethune Beach was released Friday and despite the report's strong recommendation of a beach renourishment project, residents vowed to seek state permission to erect a seawall.
11/20/79 News Journal Renourishment County Staff Recommends Renourishment For South Beach A renourishment program--not a seawall-- is the "cheapest and most environmentally safe" solution to heavy erosion that's occurring along a mile of Southeast Volusia beach where homes perch precariously atop a 15 foot high escarpment.
11/23/79 Free Press Revetment Revetment May Save Beach Home When the ocean came to within six feet of his living room, Mr. Robert Granstrom decided it was time to stop talking and start acting.
12/7/79 News Journal Seawall Erosion Letter Denied Although they were sympathetic with Bethune Beach residents, the County Council Thursday could not endorse sending an open ended letter to the Bureau of Beaches and Shores so property owners could make an application to build a seawall to keep their homes from sliding into the ocean.
12/9/79 Little Sentinel Seawall Bethune Beach residents worry about dune erosion Since Volusia County authorities have refused to endorse a plan to build a 3,600-foot seawall, residents living in Bethune Beach subdivision said they'll try building their own walls to keep their homes from being washed into the Atlantic Ocean.
12/18/79 News Journal Beach Politics Sheriff Seeks SE Beach Outpost Expecting a recurrence of the annual rash of rowdiness on Southeast Volusia beaches, Sheriff Edwin H. Duff wants more money to cover overtime patrol costs and authorization to set up a mobile booking office in the area
12/20/79 News Journal Beach Politics Behavior On Beaches South Of Smyrna Worries Council With police problems on beaches south of New Smyrna Beach worsening, the County Council promised Sheriff Ed Duff Thursday it will act quickly on his request for more manpower.
4/4/80 Little Sentinel Seawall Bethune Beach Seawall Gets Council Backing The County Council Thursday agreed to allow a seawall built across three unopened approaches to a section of Southeast Volusia beach, thus paving the way for the structure request to go to Tallahassee
5/22/80 Little Sentinel Zoning Board refuses zoning variance for beach house near right of way No argument could convince members of Volusia County Board of Adjustments Wednesday that dune erosion wasn't relevant to a zoning variance requested by a prospective beachside homebuilder.
8/1/80 News Journal Seawall Seawall Prompts Concern County Manager Thomas C Kelly has recommended against two of three requests from residents struggling to get a seawall built along the heavily eroded Bethune Beach area of Southeast Volusia.
8/5/80 News Journal Seawall County May decide Seawall Issue The County Council may decide Thursday whether to make part of the beachfront property here into a special tax assessment district so property owners can qualify for a Farmers Home Administration loan to finance a seawall in front of their land.
8/10/80 Observer Seawall Bethune group hopeful despite seawall setback A group of Bethune Beach residents are still hopeful their plans for a 3,100 foot seawall can be financed, despite an unfavorable decision by the Volusia County Council Thursday and statements from a representative of Farmer's Home Administration, which makes loans for the project seem unlikely.
10/1/81 News Journal Beach Politics Elimination of 27 Beach Stations Will Mean Less Supervision Some beach areas which attract fewer tourists than the area within the Daytona Beach city limits may bear a larger brunt of budget reductions.
10/4/81 Little Sentinel Beach Politics Chamber wants outside agency to manage beaches An age-old solution to beach issues ranging from a unified lifeguard corps to the institution of a beach ramp toll has been proposed again as the salvation of the tourism industry in the Daytona Beach area.
10/16/81 Little Sentinel Erosion Concerns grow as tides continue to erode beach Many residents and visitors were taking joyrides to the oceanfront Thursday to see the turbulent surf, but some area homeowners were concerned about continuing sand dune erosion caused by the treacherous tidal actions and battering winds.
10/23/81 News Journal Beach Driving Property Owners Ask County To Ban Traffic On Beach Citing proposed cuts in the number of sheriff's deputies to patrol the Silver Sands-Bethune Beach area, dune erosion and other reasons, the bethune Beach Property Owners Association has given the county a proposal to ban all traffic on the county beach in Silver Sands and Bethune Beach
11/17/81 News Journal Erosion County Closes South Atlantic Ave. Volusia County Public Works Director Thomas McClelland said Monday a part of old county maintained South Atlantic Avenue at Bethune Beach will remain closed until an assessment of recent storm damage is completed.
11/17/81 Little Sentinel Revetment Cliff dwellers looking for way to hold ground The erosion story coming from the Bethune Beach oceanfront continues to be a real cliff-hanger
11/18/81 News Journal Erosion Storm, Erosion Could Claim Several Beachside Home Several expensive homes in Bethune Beach could be lost if another storm similar to the one that ravaged the coast last week occurs before a protective revetment can be constructed. Last week's northeaster created pounding conditions that gnawed away sand and vegetation, leaving eight houses perched above severely eroded dunes. some homeowners kept all night vigils last Friday and Saturday, and a special emergency permit was issued by the state to truck in fill for some property that appeared to be most seriously threatened by the abnormally high tides.
11/20/81 Observer Erosion Erosion Threatens Homes As high tides and strong winds battered much of Florida's coastline Friday, residents of Bethune Beach in Southeast Volusia could do little but watch as Nature continued to erode their home sites.
11/20/81 News Journal Revetment Council Supports Idea of Bethune Revetment Residents of the erosion plagued Bethune Beach area Thursday received the Volusia County Council's approval to seek state approval for the construction of a 500 foot continuous revetment to protect their oceanfront homes.
11/20/81 Little Sentinel Beach Driving County bans driving on beach south of ramps Fearful that automobiles could damage the already eroded beachfront near New Smyrna Beach, members of the county council announced Thursday that driving on the sand would be prohibited south of the county's southernmost ramp beginning today.
11/27/81 Observer Erosion Bethune homeowners are paying the price The ocean will have its way. Whether in the face of seawalls or piles of coquina rock and gravel, you'd best put your money on the tides. And in Bethune Beach, these tides are threatening some very expensive homes which shouldn't have been built so close to the ocean in the first place
3/17/82 News Journal Erosion Fragile Bethune Beach Faces Hard Choices, Unsure Future Within the past decade, oceanfront land here has become a financially precious, yet ecologically fragile commodity. A conflict between those two attributes has caused some friction between residents developing the land and those who would preserve a more natural environment
3/18/82 News Journal Beach Driving Silver Sands Turns Down Traffic Ban The Silver Sands-Bethune Beach Municipal Services District Advisory Board Tuesday turned down a proposal by the Bethune Beach Property Owners Association to ban traffic on the beach in Bethune Beach, but left the door open for alternatives barring traffic from that and other beaches
9/24/82 Observer Beach Driving Beach traffic ban sought After about a year of trying, the Bethune Beach Property Owners Association has finally persuaded a majority of the Silver Sands-Bethune Beach Municipal Service District Advisory Board to support a ban on motor vehicle traffic on a portion of south beach
11/12/82 Observer Beach Driving Council rejects beach traffic ban Concern that a private beach would be established prompted Volusia County councilmen Thursday to reject a proposal to ban vehicle traffic on an approximate one mile stretch of Bethune Beach from Kingfish Avenue to Canaveral National Seashore
1/2/83 Little Sentinel Erosion Report urges county to abandon road to erosion Beach erosion should be allowed to take its course and wash out a section of an oceanfront road, county public works administrators say.
1/7/83 News Journal Erosion Protection Denied Bethune Beach The County Council Thursday decided to let nature take its course near Bethune Beach, even if it means the loss of a county road
12/16/83 News Journal Traffic Webb Explains Effects Of Bridge Fourlaning For two nights in a row, Harold Webb has used aerial photographs, marked in colored inks, and sheets of black and white drawings to show residents and businessmen how fourlaning the South causeway may affect them
2/3/84 News Journal Erosion Eroded Stretch Of Road May Stay Closed If the County Council sticks to its guns on a decision made in January of 1983, a small part of S. Atlantic Avenue may be closed permanently.
2/14/84 News Journal Canaveral National Seashore Seashore Paving To Start Road improvements and parking area construction at Canaveral National Seashore will start Feb. 21, the National Park service announced
2/24/84 Little Sentinel Erosion County official urges letting ocean destroy road Beach erosion should be allowed to eat away the main road serving an oceanfront subdivision at the southeastern tip of Volusia County, the county public works department recommends.
2/25/84 News Journal Erosion Heat Expected On Bid To Halt Funds For Beach Road Property owners in the erosion plagued beach area of Southeast Volusia are expected to provide stiff opposition next week to a county administration recommendation that no more money be spent to protect South Atlantic Avenue from washing into the sea.
3/2/84 News Journal Revetment Council May Go Along With Bethune Beach Sea Wall Here's a question for Bethune Beach property owners. Would you spend $12,500 to gain a $94,000 return? The answer, according to Bob Granstrom, is an obvious affirmative and that's the way he intends to approach the 84 property owners in Bethune Beach who will need to kick in $12,500 per lot to build a continuous revetment (sea wall) along the ocean
3/21/84 News Journal Turtles Dune Rocks Seen As Sea Turtle Threat The $2 million line of boulders which Bethune Beach property owners want placed in front of the dunes may save the beach's luxury homes, but Volusia County environmentalists question whether the giant erosion breaking rocks also will eliminate the nesting grounds of endangered and threatened Florida sea turtles
4/5/84 News Journal Revetment Council To Mull Bethune Seawall It appears that Bethune Beach property owners who are trying to protect their erosion threatened oceanfront property now may have to convince the federal government that further revetment construction won't do more harm to Canaveral National Seashore
4/6/84 News Journal Revetment Bethune Beach Revetment Plan Fails To Draw Council Backing An ambitious $1.9 million plan proposed by residents of Bethune Beach to build a 7,500 foot erosion barrier along the coast washed away Thursday when the Volusia County Council voted 6-1 to oppose the environmentally controversial revetment.
4/19/84 News Journal Seawall Seawall Construction Project Put On Back Burner The lone concrete walkway at the Bethune Beach seawall, torn down after being undermined by winter beach erosion, will be replaced by county public works crews-but not for a while.
11/26/84 News Journal Erosion After The Storm - Wind, Surf Damage Worst in 20 Years It was a storm with no name, but it outstripped Hurricane David and recent tropical storms in severity of local damage, according to the National Weather Service and Volusia County Civil Defense. Today, officials will begin to assess the damage to area beaches, piers, businesses and homes
11/26/84 News Journal Erosion Bethune Beach Resident Says Erosion Was Preventable Bethune Beach's severe property erosion could have been prevented if the County Council had backed a plan to build a protective rock wall along the beach, a spokesman for the Southeast Volusia property owners said Sunday.
11/26/84 News Journal Erosion Destroyed Road's Future In Doubt Parts of South Atlantic Avenue in Bethune Beach were destroyed by Friday's storm, and some councilmen have cast doubts whether it will be rebuilt.
11/27/84 News Journal Erosion Volusia, Flagler Tackle Tasks Cleanup crews from Volusia and Flagler counties started repairing roads and other damage Monday caused by a northeaster over Thanksgiving holiday. In Bethune Beach along South Atlantic Avenue, workers chopped off jagged pieces of pavement that formed dangerous overhangs. The storm, with winds gusting to 55 mph along the coast, destroyed an estimated 2,000 feet of coastline road, cutting off resident's access to their own properties.
12/4/84 News Journal Revetment County's Decision Crisis: Revetment Or Beach? In racing, they say it's where the rubber hits the road. For Volusia County Council, it's where the wave hits the beach. When the council meets Thursday, distraught property owners will plead for permission to build a slopping rock wall called a revetment all along Bethune Beach in hopes of protecting their houses from the ocean. The National Park Service will protest, citing recent erosion measurements that indicate the wall would further damage the already eroded Canaveral National Seashore beach, which adjoins Bethune on the south
12/5/84 Observer Revetment New revetment plan goes to county As expected, property owners in Bethune Beach will revive a plan Thursday before the Volusia County Council to build revetments to protect their land and homes from the ravages of tidal erosion
12/7/84 Little Sentinel Erosion Agency: Don't ask U.S. for storm aid. Department says damage too light The State Department of Community Affairs said Wednesday that Gov. Bob Graham should not seek federal assistance to help pay for the $8.1 million of damages caused by a storm that battered Florida's Atlantic coast Thanksgiving weekend
12/7/84 News Journal Revetment Seawall Plan Approved Despite some uncertainty about the long range effects, the County Council Thursday approved a plan for property owners to armor two and a half miles of Southeast Volusia beach to protect their homes against the encroaching Atlantic Ocean
12/11/84 News Journal Erosion Officials Assess Damage Armed with cameras, note pads and maps, survey teams of state and federal officials Friday toured sections of Bethune and Flagler beaches ravaged by last weeks storms.
12/11/84 Little Sentinel Zoning Board favors halt to building on beach A 6-month moratorium on building along 41 miles of coastline in Volusia County is being proposed by environmentalists who say they never want a repeat of the damage caused by a Thanksgiving weekend storm.
12/16/84 Orlando Sentinel Revetment Beachfront owners tackle erosion While owners of oceanfront land in New Smyrna are debating the benefits of a beach nourishment program, Bethune Beach homeowners are planning a revetment project to protect their property against erosion
12/20/84 News Journal Erosion Politicos Tour Beach Damage An airborne legislative road show touring storm lashed beaches in Volusia and Brevard counties began laying groundwork Wednesday for legislative action to regulate beach construction on barrier islands and fund renourishment for damaged beaches
12/21/84 News Journal Bethune Park Bethune Beach Hears of County Park Plans The annual Bethune Beach Property Owners Association Christmas party drew a near full house recently, including one retiring County councilman. A brief business meeting preceded the festivities and included County Parks and Recreation Director Wes Criles bringing the long awaited plans from architects Stottler, Stagg  Associates for the Bethune County Park.
12/21/84 Observer Revetment Revetment effort caught in jurisdictional overlap What was to be a simple matter of putting in new revetments after the Thanksgiving storm could turn into an expensive problem for Bethune Beach property owner George Engram. One state agency, the Department of Environmental Regulation (DER), gave Engram the go ahead to replace the revetments. But Monday the state Department of Natural Resources (DNR) stepped in, informing Engram he could be fined p to $1000 a day if he installs the revetments
1/13/85 Observer Revetment Full participation plan on revetments hits snag A representative of some Bethune Beach property owners, complaining that the County Council's requirement that all or none of the owners build revetments is too restrictive, wants the council to relax the rule
2/6/85 News Journal Early History B-CC Notes Stamp Honors Founder Honor and pride permeated Bethune-Cookman College's Moore Gymnasium Tuesday as the commemorative stamp honoring Mary McLeod Bethune officially was unveiled and presented to B-CC
2/8/85 News Journal Revetment Officials Soften Seawall Stance Despite a lone objector, The County Council Thursday softened its stance on armoring a section of Southeast Volusia beach with revetments and voted 5-1 to allow homeowners to build a non-continuous line of revetments
2/22/85 News Journal Revetment Homeowners Agree To Back Letterwriting Campaign Bethune Beach property owners need to mobilize with a letter writing Campaign to block the state from denying construction of sea walls and revetments by home owners trying to save their property from storms such as the damaging Northeaster Thanksgiving weekend.
2/25/85 News Journal Revetment Gov.'s Remarks 'Shock' Beach Dwellers The leaders of two Bethune Beach homeowner's groups expressed dismay Sunday at remarks Gov. Bob Graham made recently concerning the construction of sea walls and other coastal barriers along Florida's coast. Graham wants to prohibit such barriers. According to the Orlando Sentinel, the governor said Friday that if such a policy meant allowing a few houses, hotels or condominiums to slide into the ocean after the next major storm-so be it.
2/27/85 Observer Revetment Revetment effort- Expert: Erosion toll would be heavy  The threat of tidal erosion to Bethune Beach is so severe that revetments are the best answer at present to saving homes and roads from washing away, a coastal specialist has advised.
2/27/85 News Journal Bethune Park County To Advertise For Bids On Park Project At its monthly meeting,the Bethune Beach Property Owner's Association chose new officers, voted new bylaws into effect and looked over plans for the new Bethune Beach park. Speaking as a new member of the Municipal Services District Advisory Board, Steve Eichstedt said that the county is about to advertise for bids on the Bethune Beach Park project and that in ressponse to a problem of four wheel drive vehicles crossing the dunes near Flounder Avenue, posts and a sign warning of a stiff fine have been erected. He also said that the county is in violation of the "cul de sac" law because of the washouts of Atlantic Avenue and are looking into opening Whiting Avenue to provide acccess, especially to provide for emergency vehicles. New officers elected for the next year were President Steve Eichstedt, Vice President Karem Sheban and Secretary Elaine Hunter. Incumbent Treasurer Cleo Landers was returned to office. New Board members will be Margaret Johnson, Paul Kosmas, John "Jack" Stanton and Past President Bob Granstrom. Attorney Bill Preston was authorized to investigate the feasibility of incorporating Bethune Beach under the home rule charter.
3/3/85 News Journal Early History Stamp Honoring Dr. Bethune To Be Issued Tuesday She created a college with $1.50 in her pocket and an abiding faith in God. She left her last will and testament as a "document of challenge and hope." And now, her likeness will adorn a 22 cent stamp as part of the U.S. Postal Services "Black Heritage USA" series.
3/7/85 News Journal Revetment Graham, Cabinet Postpone Vote To Ban Seawalls After three hours of testimony from 29 witnesses, Gov. Bob Graham and the Cabinet delayed a crucial vote Wednesday  on whether the building of seawalls should be prohibited along the state's beaches.
3/14/85 News Journal Revetment Group Urges Graham Not To 'Give In' Contending coastal construction of seawalls and revetments is "short sighted," the Silver Sands Civic Association is urging Gov. Graham and his Cabinet "not to give in to special interest groups" before voting on whether to let property protecting barriers be built along Florida's beaches. 
3/17/85 Observer Early History Many disliked ramp tolls but got over it Tolls date back to 1893, in fact. That was the year a fee was enacted of five cents per person during the day and 10 cents per person at night for those wanting to cross the North Bridge and get to the beachside. The North Bridge then was a 15-foot wide wooden structure on which two teams of horses could pass at the same time. Tolls continued to be collected on the bridge, which subsequently was replaced with a modern concrete bridge, until 1933.
3/20/85 News Journal Seawall Sea Walls Policy OK'd Gov. Bob Graham and the Cabinet approved Tuesday a new "get tough" policy whereby permits to build sea walls and other inflexible coastal barriers will now become harder to obtain.
3/22/85 Orlando Sentinel Utilities Court rules in favor of utility deal The Florida Supreme Court ruled on Thursday that the state Public Service Commission erred when it rejected a negotiated settlement of a territorial dispute between the city's utilities commission and Florida Power & Light
4/14/85 News Journal Canaveral National Seashore Roads, Walks Boom Midst Park Beauty The National Park Service is leveling and hardtopping ecologically lush sections of Canaveral National Seashore, contrary to congressional intentions and federal planning goals calling for minimum construction and visitation.
4/25/85 News Journal Zoning-Permitting Bethune Beach Association Votes on Variance Limits Members of the Bethune Beach Property Owners Association heard a report from Municipal Services District Advisory Board Member Sonny Ellison covering issues discussed at the recent Advisory Board meeting in Silver Sands. The association also voted to recommend to the Advisory Board and the Southeast Volusia Planning and Zoning Board that no further variances for building on 50 by 50 lots be granted.
6/3/85 Observer Beach Driving Cities ponder beach driving liability Volusia County's recent flurry of local government action on beach driving has been given another push by last week's state Supreme Court ruling that reaffirmed a woman's right to sue the City of Daytona Beach for injuries suffered in a traffic accident on the beach.
6/9/85 Observer Zoning-Permitting Panel urges beach building ban Any upzoning or multi-family development on the beachside as well as business-related development along and to the south of Third Avenue would be prohibited indefinitely under a plan proposed by the New Smyrna Beach Citizens Growth Committee
6/27/85 Observer Beach Driving One-way on beach proposed by panel Momentum for changing the city's beach situation picked up this week when the Beach Advisory Board agreed to ask city commissioners to institute one-way traffic on the beach and ban driving on it between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m.
6/28/85 Observer Beach Driving Tolls, beach driving okayed… but future traffic restrictions are likely Despite City Commission approval on first reading Tuesday of an ordinance allowing cars to drive on the beach, one commissioner warned that it is not "business as usual".
7/14/85 News Journal Revetment Bethune Beach Seawall Stand Affirmed While sticking with its previous stand that no county funds will be spent for road improvements until the project is continuous and complete, the County Council Thursday agreed to write another letter to the state citing no objection to the construction of a 3,400 foot stretch of revetment in erosion plagued Bethune Beach
7/19/85 Orlando Sentinel Bethune Park County coughs up more money for proposed park Another $34,000 was added Thursday to $146,000 already earmarked for building a park in a Bethune Beach subdivision after contractors' bids showed the project would be more expensive than originally planned.
7/19/85 Observer Fire Dept South beach gets fire department funds Money for a volunteer fire department to service the Silver Sands/Bethune Beach area was included in the proposed budget accepted Thursday by the County Council.
7/19/85 Observer Utilities Millage hike, new tax near Volusia County Council members Thursday approved a proposed increase in the countywide property tax millage rate and agreed to impose a tax on utility bills in the unincorporated areas of the county.
8/16/85 Observer Utilities Utility begins territory swap New Smyrna Beach utilities commissioners Wednesday embarked on what Utilities Director Ron Hagen called the largest and probably "most complicated" of any of the utility's undertakings - the implementation of a territorial agreement with Florida Power & light.
8/18/85 Observer Beach Politics Beach takeover urged by county Saying they have lost patience with the lack of uniformity in regulating Volusia's beaches, two County Council members -  Big John and Frank Bruno - are ready to take away the authority of the municipalities to govern their beaches.
8/18/85 News Journal Fire Dept County eyes city fire station, rescue unit to be provided Faced with the prospect of having to pay New Smyrna Beach $143,000 for fire protection in the coming fiscal year, Volusia County decided last year to end its south beach fire protection contract with the city.
8/21/85 Observer Beach Politics Ascherl in no hurry for county beach takeover Reacting to County Councilman Big John's call for county control of all Volusia beaches, the council's chairman said Monday he believes John's suggestion was premature
8/23/85 Observer Annexation South beach may sue city over annexation Members of the Bethune Beach Property Owners Association agreed Wednesday to look into filing a suit against the city of New Smyrna Beach over agreements to annex. The city recently passed an ordinance that requires owners of single family homes outside the city limits to sign agreements to annex in order to receive water and sewer service. The agreements state that the property owner agrees to annex into the city when his land becomes contiguous to the city.
8/25/85 Observer Fire Dept Bethune group objects to fire station in city County officials say they are sure they will have a fire service in operation in the south beach area by Oct.1 even though they will not have a fire station built by then. Firefighters will be working out of the Silver Sands Civic Association building until a permanent station can be constructed sometime next spring.
9/4/85 Orlando Sentinel Annexation Residents resisting annexation efforts Residents in the unincorporated areas south and west of the city say they do not want to be annexed, but some commissioners are complaining that the non-residents are using municipal roads and facilities without contributing to costs
9/6/85 News Journal Beach Driving County Lets Night Beach Driving End Night driving on the county's beaches won't be permitted beginning Oct. 1, the County Council decided Thursday.
9/6/85 News Journal Utilities County Oks First Time Utility Tax Despite unanimous opposition from a roomful of citizens, the County Council voted 4-2 Thursday to impose a 10 percent tax on utility bills paid by unincorporated county residents.
9/11/85 News Journal Beach Driving New Smyrna Bans Night Beach Driving The City Commission here Tuesday agreed to ban night beach driving effective Oct. 1 and unanimously approved continuing its ramp toll from March to Labor Day.
9/13/85 Orlando Sentinel Beach Politics State weighs tax as way to save beaches An aide to Gov. Bob Graham said Thursday state officials are considering turning Florida's beaches into special taxing districts to help pay for beach renourishment and to guarantee public access.
10/2/85 Observer Beach Driving Night driving fades without incident Unlike Daytona Beach a few months ago, there were no protesters deliberately violating New Smyrna Beach's new night driving ban when it went into effect Monday. No arrests were made and no problems were reported, police said.
10/5/85 News Journal Bethune Park Bethune Beach Park Gets Closer To Reality An official groundbreaking ceremony took place recently, making the long awaited Bethune Beach Park a reality
10/6/85 Observer Fire Dept Volunteers staff new fire house A volunteer fire department will be born on the unincorporated south beach at midnight Monday. About 20 volunteers, under the supervision of local builder Karem Sheban, the department's first chief, will work out of the department's temporary station at the Silver Sands Civic Association building, 5 Palm Drive.
10/11/85 Observer Storms Isabel skips by quietly Tropical storm Isabel came close to this area's coast, but hardly disrupted the routines of Southeast Volusians.
10/19/85 Orlando Sentinel Beach Politics County wants state to govern beach access The Volusia County Council on Thursday called for Gov. Bob Graham and the Florida Legislature to develop a uniform policy to guarantee access to beaches
10/25/85 News Journal Traffic South Causeway Bridge Nears Final OK A new $423 million highrise bridge for the South Causeway has one more hurdle to span before final approval, the project's manager said Thursday.
10/30/85 News Journal Revetment Bethune Beach Association To Travel To Tallahassee At their October meeting, members of Bethune Beach Property Owners Association discussed plans to travel to Tallahassee to present their case for permits to complete the revetments to protect the dunes from further erosion in the area.
11/3/85 Observer Revetment Beach armoring fight promised Governor Bob Graham and the state Cabinet will get another shot at the Bethune Beach revetments question Tuesday, when the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) conditional endorsement of the plan will be considered again. Robert Bullard, a South Daytona coastal engineer who designed the proposed revetments, predicts a "real fist fight."
11/6/85 Orlando Sentinel Revetment Graham, Cabinet approve seawalls Gov. Bob Graham and the Cabinet unanimously approved requests Tuesday for the three new coastal barriers in Bethune Beach, doubling the length of seawalls in the south Volusia County community. The approval rests on Volusia's assurance that more than 40,000 feet of beach will be renourished regularly to offset the effects of armoring the coast. The renourishment area would extend from 4 miles south of Ponce Inlet to the Canaveral National seashore
11/7/85 News Journal Revetment John: Spread Renourishment Cost Bethune Beach property owners who use rock revetments to save their homes from being engulfed by the ocean shouldn't be the only ones forced to pay for eroding sands, according to County Councilman Big John.
11/8/85 Orlando Sentinel Revetment Bethune likely to foot bill for sand If Bethune Beach residents must replenish beaches to save their homes from being washed into the ocean, they probably will have to pay for the sand, the Volusia County Council said Thursday. Although they took no action during the meeting Thursday, most council members were opposed to using county money for the project. Only Councilman Big John said he thought the full burden shouldn't fall on the property owners.
11/10/85 Orlando Sentinel Revetment New beaches official a barrier to seawall opponents One month after Robert Dean became director of the state Division of Beaches and Shores, environmentalists began worrying that his philosophy about coastal armoring could lead to more seawalls and barriers on the beach.
11/13/85 Observer Revetment Doubt grows over Cabinet beach plan Just days after returning from Tallahassee on behalf of Bethune Beach residents seeking to armor their beach property, Volusia County Councilman Roy Schleicher has begun expressing doubts about the future of a plan worked out with the state
11/29/85 Observer Revetment State: forget beach erosion help Either renourish a seven mile stretch of beach from New Smyrna Beach to Canaveral National Seashore Park or forget about allowing property owners along erosion damaged Bethune Beach to erect rock revetments. And don't look to us for help any time soon.
12/6/85 Observer Revetment County nixes beach proposal -  Volusia punts revetment issue to state Volusia County Council members Thursday nixed any idea of a beach restoration partnership between county government and owners of erosion-threatened beachfront on Bethune Beach.
12/8/85 Observer Beach Politics Jetties blamed for Bethune problem Without fail, a discussion about Bethune Beach's worsening erosion problem includes a claim that Ponce de Leon Inlet is guilty of causing the problem. Evidence against the inlet at this point is purely circumstantial, say state officials who, nonetheless, insist it is "highly probable" that the Army Corps of Engineers' modifications of the inlet from 1968 to 1972 have at least some responsibility for increased erosion about a dozen miles to the south along Bethune Beach
1/9/86 Orlando Sentinel Bethune Park County dedicates new park Mary Mcleod Bethune Park on State Road A1A was dedicated Wednesday by Volusia County officials. Land for the park was donated to the county. The county, Bethune Beach property owners and the state Department of Natural Resources paid for the fishing piers, picnic pavilions and playground equipment at the park.
2/21/86 News Journal Zoning-Permitting Council Adopts Tougher Coastal Building Codes The County Council unanimously adopted new building code requirements Thursday designed to make all new coastal structures more hurricane resistant, despite some feelings that they were acting in haste.
5/21/86 Observer Mosquito Lagoon Smyrna makes front page of Wall Street Journal Shortly after 9 this morning, the Wall Street Journal rack in front of Little Drug on Canal Street was down to its last copy. Today millions of people across the country are reading about why shrimpers - the Indian River variety - go shrimping. 
6/22/86 News Journal Mosquito Lagoon Mosquito Lagoon: One Last Chance Volusia County is the keeper of what has been called the finest jewel in Florida's Atlantic crown of inland waterways - Mosquito Lagoon. As its keeper, we are in the delicate position of being able to enjoy its beauty and its bounty, yet we risk being blamed if its riches are lost or stolen. And we are on the brink of losing them now.
7/10/86 News Journal Zoning-Permitting Bethune Beach Site Gets Tourist Boost Despite planning staff objections, the Volusia County Planning and Land Development Regulation Commission Tuesday sided with a property owner's request for a 9,608 square foot parcel in Bethune Beach. George w Engram Jr. of Daytona Beach who owns the property, is seeking tourist classification for the parcel, which is zoned urban single family residential. His land is on the east side of Atlantic Avenue near Mary McLeod Bethune Park.
8/28/86 Observer Sewers-Septic Utility may share sewer cost Concerned about pollution of the Indian River and oyster beds in the unincorporated south beach area, the New Smyrna Beach Utilities Commission took the first step Wednesday to correct the problem. The commission told a south beach restaurant owner it is interested in paying part of the cost for a sewage lift station that is required to extend sewer lines to JB's Fish Camp and Restaurant and instructed staff to prepare cost figures
9/8/86 Observer Utilities City to move on utility ban New Smyrna Beach city commissioners Tuesday will consider a resolution that would lead to a ban on water and sewer connections to unincorporated areas that exceed the city's density cap. Of special concern to the city is land zoned with the county's tourist classification, which allows 40 units per acre for multi-family projects and 60 units for hotels and motels.
9/14/86 Observer Zoning-Permitting They're not going to stop me: Engram George Engram said Friday he plans to go ahead with plans for a proposed 60-room hotel and restaurant on Bethune Beach despite the refusal of the New Smyrna Beach City Commission to extend sewer lines to the site.
10/16/86 News Journal Mosquito Lagoon County Planners Approve Lagoon Study For Plan The Volusia County Planning and Land Development Regulation Commission recommended Tuesday that the County Council include the Mosquito Lagoon Water Management Study as an amendment to the county's Comprehensive Development Plan.
10/16/86 Observer Zoning-Permitting Building density panel to be named Volusia County Councilman Roy Schleicher is scheduled to tell today who is going to be on the city-county committee to study building density and sewer services on the unincorporated south beaches.
11/11/86 Observer Zoning-Permitting South beach rezoning ban recommended Volusia County Councilman Roy Schleicher said today he will ask the council Thursday for a moratorium on rezoning in the unincorporated south beaches until a city-county committee finishes its work.
12/28/86 Observer Mosquito Lagoon Shrimpers: Let's Conserve Maybe it was last May's front page article in the wall Street Journal about how great it is to spend a night shrimping on the Indian River here. Or maybe it was going to happen anyway. But whatever the cause, the hordes of people stalking shrimp on the Indian River each night are making life tough for those who make a living shrimping in the ocean
4/17/87 Observer Annexation Bethune officers sworn in County Councilman Roy Schleicher Tuesday swore in the new Bethune Beach Property Owners Association officers: Karam Sheban - Vice President, Bob Granstrom - President, Malissa McDonald - Secretary and Arlene Borger - Treasurer. One of the highlights of the meeting was announcement of the results of a survey, with 100 percent of the respondents opposing incorporation with the City of new Smyrna Beach, but supporting completion of oceanfront revetments.
5/17/87 News Journal Road Paving Bethune Beachers seek paved roads Residents of this unincorporated residential community south of New Smyrna Beach want the county to find its way out of a "bureaucratic maze" and complete a $320,000 road paving project.
6/8/87 Observer Mosquito Lagoon Save Our Rivers group plans initial meeting "Save Our Rivers," a group started by Bethune beach restaurant owner John Bollman to press government officials for river preservation measures, will hold its initial meeting at 7 p.m. Tuesday at J.B.'s Fish camp.
6/10/87 News Journal Mosquito Lagoon Group Maps 'Save River' Battle Plans A lobbying group concerned about the future of the Indian River and its multimillion dollar fishing industry can be effective if it takes an active role in pushing lawmakers for preservation statutes. "Once you get the idea that it's your government and your river, you're a winner" said Big John - County Councilman.
6/11/87 Observer Mosquito Lagoon $66,400 lift station for camp, homes John Bollman, owner of J.B.'s Fish Camp in Bethune Beach, put $66,400 of his own money where his mouth was at Wednesday's meeting of the New Smyrna Beach Utilities Commission. Bollman and the commission came to an agreement that allows the restaurateur - Save Our Rivers activist to construct a $60,000 sewage lift station and sewer main on $6,400 worth of land he donated for a total cost to Bollman of $66,400.
7/12/87 News Journal Mosquito Lagoon No Rush To Build On Lagoon's Shores as Moratorium Ends When the Mosquito Lagoon moratorium ended in May after almost two years, no one rushed to start building in the moratorium area - the 1,375 acres adjacent to the lagoon between Edgewater and Oak Hill city limits.
7/12/87 News Journal Mosquito Lagoon Group: Lagoon's Future Murky As the sun set over Mosquito Lagoon, emotions mixed with the salty air. "I remember when I was a kid in New Smyrna; you could see the bottom of the river from the bridges, Blue water, nice and clear. Now you can't even tell where the bottom is," said David Davenport as he stood on the porch at J.B.'s Fish Camp and Restaurant last week. "We've got to say no to these people who come here after bucks."
5/9/88 News Journal Mosquito Lagoon SWIM tosses line to drowning river Florida's SWIM act stands as the last chance to save the struggling Indian River, say conservationists. The water boards are meeting to discuss plans for restoring and preserving the Indian River, plans financed by $1.75 million in state and matching SWIM funds.







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